Important Key Thinkers in Political Theory | Political Science | Ideolgy



-- Betty Friedan : Feminist Writer and Activists
"The Famine Mystique"  (1963) contributed in Sparking Second Phase of Women Movement for Equality and broken private sphere into public sphere.
● Opposed Functionalism and Masculine Dominant Socitey.
●As a President of NOW ( National Organization for Women ) in 1966 , her aimed is to bring women into mainstream of American socitey now fully partnership with men.

-- Rosa Luxemberg: Marxist Theorist, Economist, Philosopher, and Anti- War Activists.
Major Work : "Articulation of Capitalism" (1913)
-- "Social Reforms or Revolution" (1899)
-- "The Mass Strike" (1999)
● She argued that capitalism needs to constantly expand into non-capitalist areas in order to access new supply sources, markets for surplus value and reservoirs of labor. According to Luxemburg, Marx had made an error in Das Kapital.
● She defended Karl Marx's Dialectical Materialism and Conception of history.
● She said revolution and struggle is only way to remove Capitalism.

-- George Lukas
● He was one of the most important Marxist thinker of his age.
● He belongs to "Western Marxism" or "Hegelian Marxism"
● Important Works:
History and Class Consciousness (1923)
The Historical Novel (1936)
The Meaning of Contemporary Realism (1958)

-- Alasadir Machintyre
● His Major Work is "After Virtue" (1981)
  -- The Work is considered as key text of communitarianism
  -- He has influenced other communitarians as Michael Sandel and Michael Charles Taylor.
● Other Important Work :
"Whose Justice ? Whose Rationality ?"

-- Ernest Mendel
● He Is a Marxist Economist and a Critique of Capitalism.
● His most famous work is : “Late Capitalism"
● He divides Capitalism into Three Phases >>>
1⃣ Competitive Capitalism : Capitalism Confined within domestic boundaries.
2⃣ The Era of Imperialism : Here Capitalist search for overseas markets in order to sell their Overproduction.

3⃣ Late Capitalism : The era of great Multinational Corporations.

● His Other Works : The Second Slump (1978)
-- Long Wave of Capitalist Devlopment


KEY THINKERS ON CAPITALISM

DEFENCE OF CAPITALISM

-- Friedrich Hayek : The Constitution of Liberty (1978)
-- Milton Friedman: Capitalism and Freedom (2002)

CRITICS OF CAPITALISM

-- Karl Marx:
Three Volumes of Capital :
> First Volume (1867)
>> Second Volume (1893) After his death
>>> Third Volume (1894) After his death

-- Max Webber: Economy and Socitey (1978)

-- G A Cohen: Karl Marx's Theory of History: A defence

KEY THINKERS ON COMMUNITARIANISM

Thinkers Who criticize individualism:

--- CB Macpherson: 'The Political Theory of Possessive individualism' (1962)
--- JGA Pocock: 'The Machiavellian Movement
'
Communitarian critique of John Rawls ' Theory of Justice

--- Michael Waizer's: Sphere of Justice (1984)
--- Michael Sandel's: Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (1982)

Will Kymlicka's  "Liberalism, Community and Culture" (1989)
Robert D Putnam: "Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community" (2001)

KEY THINKERS ON CONSERVATISM
-- Alexis De Tocqueville: "The Old Regime and French Revolution"
-- Michael  Oakshott: "Rationalism in Politics"
-- Edmund Burke's: "Reflection on the Revolution of France"
-- Russel Kirk: "The Conservative Mind"
-- Ted Honderich: "Conservatism: Burk, Nozick, Bush, Blair" (2003)

KEY THINKERS ON IDENTITY POLITICS

-- Iris M Young:
● 'Justice and Politics of Difference' (1990)
● 'Inclusion and Democracy' (2002)
--- Axel Honneth: "The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflict and Identity Politics"
--- Sheyla Benhabib: " The Claims of Culture: Equality and diversity in global era (2001)

KEY THINKERS ON DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY
-- Amartya Sen: "Collective Choice and Social Welfare"  (1970)
-- John S Dryzek: "Deliberative Democracy and Beyond"  (2000)
-- Juregen Habermas: "Between Facts and Norms: Contribution to Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy".
-- Sheyla Benhabib: 'Democracy and Discontent: Contesting the Boundary of Politics' (1996)

Post a Comment

0 Comments