Emergency : Darkest Hour in Indian Democracy

India is known as world's largest democracy.

The country's special thing is that after having vast diversity all across the country
Its democratic structure works successfully since independence.

It was aspiration and desires of the leaders and peoples of India, who participated In the national struggle movement that country will be followed the principle of Democratic nation.

The period of emergency in India refer to the 19 Months, From 25 June 1975 to 21 March 1977.

Now we discussing about why 1975 Emergency known as Darkest hours in Indian democracy? 

The Answer is very simple unfollwed the idea and principles of Democratic nation by then Congress government headed by Prime minister Indira Gandhi

To safeguard the position of his own she call for an emergency in few minute before the midnight of 25 June 1975 to President Fakhruddin ali Ahmed.

The period of emergency shaken the structure of democracy in India for a short duration.

Generally Emergency is declared for an internal disturbance and threatning to internal security of India , under Article 352 of the Indian Constitution.

Although it is true that movement occurred all across the country specially in Gujarat and Bihar but we also cannot denied most of the movement occurred before emergency were peacefully happens and it was not harm for the internal disturbence.

In next section we will broadly described about it

Reasons of Emergency Declaration

1. Due to Inefficient Policy of Congress , every People of India especially in North India altoghter stand against him. Therefore to maintain the situation of his own she declared emergency.

2. The situation of opposing activity of Congress is biggest reason of the declaring emergency. In 1973-74 Increasing oil price, Monsoon Failure was cause of economic crisis.

3. Daily Strike of Railway workers interrupt the activity of Government offices and daily works of public.

4. Due to increasing strike and movement Congress lost their govt. From Gujarat and Bihar. In the leadership of JP (Jay prakash Narayan) all opposition party collectively passed the Non - Confidence motion against Congress govt.

5. The Controversial conflict between Judiciary and Executive is another major reason of emergency declaration.

Overlook the emergence of Indira Gandhi in Politics

After the unprecedented death of Prime minster Lal bhadhur shastri in 1966.
There is coming for an immediate need for  next Prime minister subsequently Question was raising who will be the next prime minister.

The Congress committee choose Indira Gandhi as his next prime minister. Indira Gandhi comes into politics and split Congress in two part in 1969 : First Congress (O) headed by Morarji Desai with some old members of the congress and Second was Congress (R) in respect of Indira Gandhi with some loyal members towards her.

During 1967 -71 it increase the personality of Indira Gandhi in front of people because of its effective policy measurement such as 1971 Slogan "Garibi Hatao". This slogan attract the many backward classes of the country. As result Congress gain victory with (352 Out of 518)

But After 1971 situation of India was become worsened by every next year.

Impact of Emergency 

● Government stop the freedom of Press and told newspaper publisher without the prior recommendation of govt. you can't publish anything. It is called as "Press- Censorship".

● To looking over communal and social unbalanced, Government Restrict the activity of RSS (Rashtriya Swaynsevak sangh and Jamat - a- islami.

● Ineffectual of citizens certain Rights and they also don't have the right to knock the door of court in case of violation.

● Government also use Preventive detention in high measurements during emergency. In this provision government arrest and detain any people without telling him or her reason for detain.

● MISA ( Maintenance of Internal security Act) was also use to looking internal security.

● In early morning of emergency declaration many opposition laders and members arrested and put under them jail and few leaders who maintain himself to escape underground and organized activity.


Above all the discussion has made Prove that Government of India under the leadership of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi  misuse state machinery and guarding his own position at the cost of democracy.

Another negetive aspect of the emergency is censorship on media, known Fourth pillar of Indian democracy.

The Freedom of Press was curbed during emergency and no one publisher can produce his news without prior recommendation of Government.
Some news was published but it only represent good activity of Government and this is the major threat on Indian democracy.

Judiciary another major pillar of democracy was always seen in conflict with executive. During emergency many of the supreme court verdict on appeal of people has nullify by means of executive.

So it is adequate to say that 1975 Emergency is a darkest hour in Indian democracy.


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