History of Greeks

Learning Objective
● In this post we are only Reading about Greek People
● In this reading we understand origin of the greek peoples at different times period.

✏️ The Greeks peopls history so old and long. They belongs to an ethnic group native to GreeceCyprus, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, southern Albania, as an extent,  There are many other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.

✏️ According to history Greek colonies and communities were established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.

✏️ Before 20th century, Greeks were
distributed and divided between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople the Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods.

Nowadays Most ethnic Greeks live within
the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and
population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks  are mostly influenced by the culture and Religion they  officially registered himself as a members of the Greek Orthodox Church.

● From the Ancient period Greeks people have greatly influenced and
contributed to culture, arts, exploration,
literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics ie; Pythagoras, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports,  both historically and contemporarily.

✏️Origins and History

Origin and History of the greek peoples are revolving around the different time period at different civilization , peoples were same but outside invasion make his status of civilization . Greeks speaks the greek language which make it's own unique branch with the indo European family of language.

● The Proto-Greeks probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC.  The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries later and are therefore subject to some uncertainties.

● There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC and the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse.

An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period (3rd millennium BC), i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic. Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC.

Mycenaean Greeks and Civilization

In 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization. They developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek. The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus  and the shores of Asia Minor.

● In 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus.
Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is likely the main attack was made by seafaring raiders (Sea Peoples) who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC.
The Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages.

● Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth.The Homeric Epic i.e. Iliad and Odyssey were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism ( that scholars began to question Homer's historicity). As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece e.g. ZeusPoseidon  and Hades.

Classical Greeks and Civilization

In 8th century BC ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism.

● According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture. 

● The works of Homer and Hesiod  were  written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology.

● The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period.

● The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC (some authors prefer to split this period into "Classical", from the end of the Greco-Persian Wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War, and "Fourth Century", up to the death of Alexander). It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras.

● The Classical period is also described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and its art, philosophy, architecture and literature would be instrumental in the formation and development of Western culture.

● While the Greeks of the classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Hellenic genos, their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek city-states.

The Peloponnesian War, the large scale civil war between the two most powerful Greek city states Athens and  Sparta and  their allies, left both greatly weakened.

Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars' opinions, united under the banner of Philip's and Alexander the Great's Pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt, rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian conquest for the sake of conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power and view the "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the city-states.

● Many Greeks settled in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia.Two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and  Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.

6th Century
Colonies established across the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.

5th Century
Defeat of the Persians and emergence of the Delian League in Ionia, the Black Sea and Aegean perimeter culminates in Athenian Empire and the Classical Age of Greece; ends with Athens defeat by Sparta at the close of the Peloponnesian War.

4th century BC
Rise of Theban power and defeat of the Spartans; Rise of Macedon; Campaign of Alexander the Great; Greek colonies established in newly founded cities of Ptolemaic Egypt and Asia.

2nd century BC
Conquest of Greece by the Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks to Rome.

4th century AD
Eastern Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks throughout the Empire, mainly towards Constantinople.

7th century
Slavic conquest of several parts of Greece, Greek migrations to Southern Italy, Roman emperors capture main Slavic bodies and transfer them to Cappadocia. The Bosphorus is re-populated by Macedonian and Cypriot Greeks.

8th century
Roman dissolution of surviving Slavic settlements in Greece and full recovery of the Greek peninsula.

9th century
Retro-migrations of Greeks from all parts of the Empire (mainly from Southern Italy and Sicily) into parts of Greece that were depopulated by the Slavic Invasions (mainly western Peloponnesus and Thessaly).

13th century
Roman Empire dissolves, Constantinople taken by the Fourth Crusade; becoming the capital of the Latin Empire. Liberated after a long struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated. Migrations between Asia Minor, Constantinople and mainland Greece take place.

15th-19th Century
Conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire. Greek diasporainto Europe begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece. PhanariotGreeks occupy high posts in Eastern European millets.

1830s Creation of the Modern Greek State.Immigration to the New World  begins. Large-scale migrations from Constantinople and Asia Minor to Greece take place

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