📝Main Principle of Fascism

The term fascismo is derived from the Latin word fasces. The fasces , which consisted of a bundle of rods that that were tied around on axe , was an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrate. They were carried by his lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.

● The word fascismo also relates to political organization in Italy  known as fasci , groups similar to guilds or syndicates. The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. Similar symbols were developed by different fascist movements.

Historians, political scientists and other scholars have long debated the exact nature of fascism. Each form of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions too wide or narrow. Since the 1990s, scholars including Stanley Payne, Roger Eatwell, Roger Griffin and Robert O. Paxton have been gathering a rough consensus on the ideology's core tenets

● Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek elevation of their nation based on commitment to an organic national community where its individual are united together as one people in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry and culture through a totalitarian state that seeks the mass 'mobilization of a nation through discipline, indoctrination, physical training, and eugenics.

● Fascism was founded during World War I by Italian national syndicalists who combined left-wing and right-wing political views.

● Fascism opposes multiple ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and the two major forms of socialism communism and social democracy, and denounce them as representatives of sectarian interests rather than the community as a whole. To achieve its goals, the fascist state purges forces, ideas, people, and systems deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration.

● Fascism promotes political violence and war as forms of direct action that promote national rejuvenation, spirit and vitality. Fascists commonly utilize paramilitary organizations to commit or threaten violence against their opponents.

● The fascist party and state is led by a supreme leader who exercises a dictatorship over the party, the government and other state institutions.
Fascists claim that their ideology is a trans-class movement, advocating resolution to domestic class conflict within a nation to secure national solidarity. It claims that its goal of cultural  nationalization of society emancipates the the nation's proletariat, and promotes the assimilation of all classes into proletarian national culture. While fascism opposes domestic class conflict, fascism believe that bourgeois-proletarian conflict primarily exists in national conflict between proletarian natons versus bourgeois nations; fascism declares its opposition to bourgeois nations and declares its support for the victory of proletarian nations.

● Fascism advocates a state-controlled and regulated mixed economy; the principal economic goal of fascism is to achieve national autarky to secure national independence, through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. It promotes regulated private enterprise and private property contingent whenever beneficial to the nation and state enterprise and state property whenever necessary to protect its interests. At the same time, fascists are hostile to financial capital, plutocracy, and “the power of money”. It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers because it deems these acts as prejudicial and detrimental to the national community and therefore to society as an entirety.

For Griffin, fascism is “a genuinely revolutionary, trans-class form of anti-liberal. and in the last analysis, anti-conservative nationalism” built on a complex range of theatetical and cultural influences. He distinguishes an inter-war period in which it manifested itself in elite-led but populist ”armed party” politics opposing socialism and liberalism and promising radical politics to rescue the nation from decadence. Mussolini said that Fascism is revolutionary against liberalism ”since it wants to reduce the size of the State to its necessary functions." 

✏️ One common definition of fascism focuses on three groups of ideas:

(i) Fascist Negations of anti liberalism, anti-communism and anti-conservatism.

(ii) Nationalist, authoritarian goals for the creation of a regulated economic structure to transform social relations within a modem self-determined culture.

(iii) A political aesthetic using romantic symbolism, mass mobilisation, a positive view of violence , promotion of masculinity and youth and charismatic leadership.

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